The Role of Commercial Banks
Over 50% of construction loans are made by commercial banks, primarily due to their ability to match loan yields with the cost of funds through the lender's prime rate. They also possess knowledge of the local market and the capability to monitor and control loan disbursements effectively.
Other Lenders in Construction Loans
Savings and Loan Associations (S&Ls): They account for 37% of all construction loans, with a significant focus on one to four family dwellings.
Additional Lenders: Mortgage bankers, real estate investment trusts (REITs), life companies, and pension funds also contribute to the construction loan market.
Local Lending Preference
Construction loans are usually handled by local lenders due to two main reasons:
1. Disbursement Monitoring: The need for regular site inspections after each disbursement to ensure compliance with plans and specifications.
2. Leasing Requirements: Most commercial takeout commitments require a certain percentage of the project to be leased at or above the Pro Forma rate for funding.
The Forward Commitment
A forward commitment is a future promise for either a permanent loan or property purchase by a lender or institution. It must be bankable, meaning it is backed by a reputable and large institution. Types of forward commitments include:
1. Takeout Loan Commitment: A promise to provide a permanent loan on a specific future date to pay off the construction loan.
2. Standby Loan Commitment: Typically expensive terms and not expected to fund, used mainly to satisfy construction lenders.
3. Forward Equity Purchase Commitment: An institution's promise to buy the property upon completion, commonly used for large-scale projects.
Many lenders, especially S&Ls, offer construction/takeout combinations, blending the terms of construction and permanent loans. These loans are particularly useful for allowing time to establish an operating history or to accommodate expected rent increases.
The Mini-Perm Loan
A mini-perm loan is a type of takeout loan, generally lasting around three years, allowing the developer time to qualify for a traditional permanent loan. These loans are often structured with negative amortization and have caps to prevent indefinite accumulation of unpaid interest.
The Construction Loan Approval Process
1. Local Lender Analysis: A local construction lender first assesses the demand for the proposed space and the developer's plans.
2. Securing a Takeout Commitment: If needed, the developer seeks a takeout commitment from a long-term lender, who evaluates the project's potential cash flow and debt service coverage ratio.
3. Finalizing the Construction Loan: With a forward commitment in hand, the developer returns to the construction lender for final loan approval and funding.
The construction loan process is a critical pathway in real estate development, requiring careful planning, local market knowledge, and strategic financial arrangements. Developers must navigate this process by understanding the roles of different lenders, the importance of local market knowledge, and the complexities of loan commitments and structures. By mastering these aspects, developers can secure the necessary funding to bring their projects to fruition.